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Croatian folklore and history

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Croatian folklore and history

Post  Manahuna on 09.04.11 13:10






Croatian Glagolitic Script:
http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/et03.html


The Croatian name can be traced back to Persia. The earliest mention of the Croatian name as Horovathos (modern Hrvatske / Hrvat or Hrvati / Horvat) can apparently be traced on two stone inscriptions in Greek language and script, dating from around AD 200, found at Tanais seaport on the Azov sea, Krim. One of the confluents to the River Don near the region of Azov is called Horvatos. The Croatian name can also apparently be traced to different sites in Ukraine, and around Krakow in Poland, to Bohemia, and Austria, showing the migratory path which the Croatian tribes are said to have taken (these were the White Croats). In around 800-819, Croatian rulers established separate states along the Adriatic coast and inland in Slavonia (former Roman Pannonia). The ruler was entitled 'Ban / Banovi' (the equivalent of 'king'), a word found only in Croatia which is presumed to have Indo-European roots.

By the ninth century the Carolingian Frankish empire controlled almost all of Europe, but when Charlemagne's death divided it, Croatia's ruling duke revolted and formed an independent state - the earliest such state of any duration in the Balkans region. This previous contact with the West and Croatia's ideal location on the coast of the Adriatic enabled the state to develop more rapidly than some of its inland neighbours. The title of 'Ban' was relegated to the equivalent of viceroy, but often the serving Ban would later be elevated to king.

(Additional information by Željko Buzov.)

c.626 - c.641

Klukas, Lobel, Kosjenc, Muhlo, Hrvat & Tuga, Buga
Five brothers and two sisters.


c.626 - c.641

The seven siblings lead the Croats from the area around Krakow in Poland into the Balkans. They are invited by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius to help him fight the Avars. The Croats receive their present-day lands to settle as a reward. This is a typical Roman foedus relationship, illustrated by tenth century Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenet: 'De Administrando Imperio' (On Ruling The Empire), Chapter 31). Unfortunately, the Slav presence in Dalmatia and Istria leads to the destruction of churches, and Pope John IV, a Dalmatian, is forced to pay large sums of money to free prisoners. The relics of some of the more important Dalmatian saints are interred in Rome.

c.641 - c.689

Radoslav

c.641 - c.689

Radoslav is a strong ruler. His name is preserved after his long reign in people's memory and folk ballads up to the twentieth century as 'Old-Man Radoslav'. The introduction of Christianity is made under his rule (according to other sources the Croats were already Christianised when they arrived in the Balkans).

c.689 - c.800

A period in which the activities of the Croats remains undocumented.

Dukes of Croatia
c.AD 810 - 925

The Croatian ruler rejected Frankish authority after the death of Charlemagne, declaring an independent duchy.

c.800 - c.810

Visheslav
First independent duke.

c.810 - 821

Borna
In Dalmatia. Carolingian vassal.

c.810

The later Croatian royal court is modelled very closely on these contemporary Carolingian court practices, churches are constructed in the Carolingian style, as are arms and armour.

c.814

Borna rejects Frankish authority following the death of Charlemagne. Instead, he declares Croatia to be an independent duchy.

817 - 823

Ljudevit Posavski
Nephew of Borna. Ruler of Pannonia.

819 - 823

Posavski means 'of river Sava'. Ljudevit successfully resists seven Frankish army raids during this period. Finally defeated, he escapes via Serbia to his uncle Borna who puts him in a dungeon to please the Carolingians. Ljudevit dies in captivity.

821 - c.835

Vladislav

c.835 - c.845

Mislav

c.845 - 864

Trpimir I
Founder of the Trpimirpvich dynasty.

864

Zdeslav

864 - 876

Domagoj

876

Iljko

876 - 879

Zdeslav
Restored.

879 - 892

Branimir

892 - 910

Mutimir / Muncimir / Mucimir

910 - 925

Tomislav
Elevated to king.

Kingdom of Croatia
AD 925 - 1918


In 924, Duke Tomislav was elevated to king of Dalmatian Croatia by the Pope and united it with Slavonia to create the first permanent kingdom in Eastern Europe. He stopped the Hungarian advance on the river Drava (which even today forms the boundary between Hungary and Croatia, and was possibly the first stable boundary in Europe). Also, Tomislav aided the Serbian ruling nobility, offering them shelter and stopping the Bulgarian advance at the river Drina (today's boundary between Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina). He founded the castle of Vishegrad on the left bank of river Drina as his summer residence to emphasise Croatia's borders to the Bulgarians. 'Croatia' was used to define the inland parts including western Bosnia, while Dalmatia defined the ex-Greek coastal regions (and modern Herzegovina).

After his death civil wars weakened the state and some territory, including that of Bosnia, was lost. Lack of a suitable heir in 1089 resulted in the crown eventually being passed into Hungarian ownership, leaving its day-to-day running in the hands of local rulers.

925 - 928

Tomislav I

Crowned by Pope John X (925).

928 - c.935

Trpimir II

c.935 - c.945

Kresimir I

c.945 - c.949

Miroslav

c.945 - c.969

Michail Kresimir II

c.969 - 997

Stjepan Drzislav

997 - 1000

Svetoslav Mucimir

997 - 1030

Kresimir III

997 - 1020

Goislav

1030 - 1058

Stephen I

Ban (pre-1030?) - not all sources agree on this.

1058 - 1074

Petar Kresimir IV
Restored kingdom to Tomislav's level.

1074 - 1075

Slavich

1075

Slavich is captured by Venetians during a walk by the seaside and is taken in slavery.

1075 - 1091

Dimitar Zvonimir

Ban (1070-1073). Only heir died in childhood.

1089

Dimitar marries Princess Helena Illona Lijepa, daughter of King Bela I of Hungary.
Helena's brother is St Ladislas I of Hungary.

1088 - 1091

Helena / Ilona Lijepa ('Beautiful')

Joint ruler.

1089 - 1090

Stephen II

Dalmatian opponent to Helena.

1091 - 1093

Almos

1090 - 1093

Slavac

Dalmatian opponent to Helena and then Almos.

1093 - 1097

Peter Svachich

Ban (1074). Considered to be the last king of Croatian blood.

1097

Ladislas of Hungary's successor, Koloman (supported by Pannonian Croats), defeats his Croatian-Dalmatian opposition at Gvozd Mountain (modern Petrova Gora). Croatia maintains its autonomy but confirms Koloman as its king, and crowns him King of Croatia & Dalmatia in Biograd. Croatia is now governed on behalf of the Hungarian king by the continuation of the office of Ban (viceroy) and the Sabor (parliament, literally, 'a gathering of people'). Anything the Hungarian king wishes to enact in Croatia has to be passed through the Sabor first.

1102

The Pacta Conventa ('the conditions agreed upon') is signed by a group of Croatian nobles (who form a 'House of Lords'). This concedes the throne to the person of the Hungarian king, Ladislas, in exchange for guaranteed autonomy. This respects the principle 'Regnum regi non prescribit leges' (literally, 'the kingdom doesn't prescribe laws to another kingdom'). This is opposed by some Croatian elements, but essentially ensures the two kingdoms are separate while sharing the same ruler.

1397

King Sigismund of Hungary & Croatia calls for the Sabor in city of Krizhevci. On 20 February he organises the killing of the Croatian Ban Stjepan Lackovich and his followers for supporting the opponent king candidate Ladislaus of Naples. Croatian law is that no one should enter the Sabor with arms, so Ban Lackovich and his supporters leave their arms in front of the church. The Hungarians are already in the church, fully armed. The event is known as 'Bloody Sabor of Krizhevci'.

1527

The Cetingrad Convention of Croatian Nobility is drawn up on the 1 January. This allows a financially poor Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand to replace the destroyed Hungarian nobility as king of Croatia. The invitation is conditional on him providing defence against the advancing Turks. He is as good as his word.

1847

Croatian is proclaimed as the official language, replacing Latin (for use in the Sabor and with diplomacy especially).

1848

The Croatian Ban, Josip Jelachich, ends all relations with Hungary and appoints the Sabor as Croatia's independent government.

1868

The Sabor accepts the Croatian-Hungarian settlement according to which Croatia is part of the Hungarian crown lands, but with its own legal system and autonomous government for certain state affairs. The Croats lose their Crown sovereignty for some time (viewed by modern Croatians as one of the state's worst mistakes).

Modern Croatia
AD 1918 - Present Day


Croatia in the nineteenth century was still joined to the crown of Hungary, and both nations were within the Austrian empire until 1918. The chance of full independence as the First World War drew to an end was replaced with the artificial kingdom of Yugoslavia, a state of 'Southern Slavs'. This in turn was destroyed by Italian and German occupation in the Second World War, and communist control afterwards. It was only with the collapse of communism in the late eighties and early nineties that true independence was gained, although even that needed a war against Serbia to cement it.

1918

With the collapsed Austro-Hungarian empire being dismantled, Croatia (with Bosnia, Slovenia and Voyvodina) establishes the State of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes. This union is offered to the Serbian king in the same way that the crown was earlier offered to the Hungarians and Austrians. The Serbs fail to honour the agreement, pulling Croatia into the new Yugoslavian kingdom.

1928

Alexander II of Serbia changes the name of the combined kingdom from the kingdom of Serbs, Croats & Slovenes to the kingdom of Yugoslavia.

1941

The kingdom of Yugoslavia is ended by Italian and Nazi German occupation. Aimone of Spoleto is placed on a Croatian throne as Mussolini's 'Paglliacio' (literally nobody), elevated to king. The office is a Fascist mockery of the millennium of the Croatian Kingdom only sixteen years earlier to show the Croats who rules the Dalmatian territories (ie. Fascist Italy). Aimone's son, Prince Amedeo of Savoy, later claims to be head of the House of Savoy.

1941 - 1943

Aimone of Spoleto

Puppet king of Croatia.

1941 - 1945

The NDH (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska - Independent State of Croatia) is formed which includes Bosnia. It is a pro-Nazi regime led by Doctor Ante Pavelich. Ministers Vokich and Lorkovich travel to London in 1943 to negotiate the transition of the NDH to the Allies but they are eliminated after returning to Zagreb. The basis of the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia is eventually established.

1945 - 1946

The Federal State of Croatia is established.

1946 - 1963

The People's Republic of Croatia is established as part of communist-governed Yugoslavia.

1963 - 1990

The Socialist Republic of Croatia is established as part of communist-governed Yugoslavia.

1990

A democratically-elected Sabor is re-established on 22 December.

1991

On 25 June, Croatia, Istria, and Slovenia leave Yugoslavia and declares themselves independent republics. The Serbs begin a war which lasts until 4 August 1995. Croatian and Slovenian independence is secured and recognised by Europe.

http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/EasternCroatia.htm



Marko Polo (and his his true origins)

Korcula and the Polo Family

The 13th century was the time when Europe lived in constant conflict between its town-states, which were still preoccupied with the Crusades. It was a time when numerous armies were crossing European soil, destroying foreign towns and killing off their inhabitants. This was a time of poor living conditions, when food and clothing were lacking, and when European inhabitants did not know much about raw materials and agricultural skills. They had no knowledge of coal, oil, paper, gunpowder, compasses, coffee, potatoes, corn, tomatoes, tabacco...all the things without which the life of contemporary man would seem inconceivable.

But while political instability and economic poverty were limiting the life of the average European, reducing it to pure survival, the stability of the Roman Catholic Church - in spite of all dynastic struggles and doctrinarian rigidity, often with perilous consequences - at the same time opened to him spiritual perspectives, giving hope and laying down the structural base for cultural development. This was the time of the most splendid Gothic building, as for example the cathedral of Chartres, begun in 1294; of Reims in 1210; of Salisbury, erected in 1220. One of the most significant political events was the proclamation of Rudolf for Holy Roman Emperor, who managed to spread the influence of the Habsburgs to Austria, thus laying the foundations of the state which would, for the next five centuries, represent the bulwark of European culture.

In that interplay - of the material and the spiritual, of violence and reconciliation, a mixture of awareness and dream - an unique position was to be held by that small Italian town-state, called Venice. Built on an island archipelago, near the mainland, it looked like an enchanted vision which emerging like Aphrodite from the Adriatic Sea. But Venice was not an apparition. Built in stone in the magnificent style of the Middle Ages with emphasized Byzantine elements and connected by a network of channels and bridges, it manifested the power of a trading and maritime force, spreading its influence across the Adriatic aquatic surface, and over to the Mediterranean as far as Constantinople itself, which fell into its hands in 1202.

The town and island of Korcula was unprotected, and indeed there were many who fought for it at that time because of its strategic position on the maritime trade routes and also because of its geographical configuration which makes it ideal for the refuge of war ships and merchant galleys. For these reasons Korcula was unlikely to escape the powerful arm of Venice. The Croat population of the island and the town of Korcula tried hard to resist the intensions of the Venetian Republic. In order to hinder Venitian plans and protect their island community, the Korculans adopted their communal statute in 1214. That statute, the oldest legal document in this part of Europe, codified the whole life of the town and the island and, in many of its decrees, set an example of the European proportions. Numerous decrees regarding maritime law, the abolition of slavery, the protection of the environment etc. witness to a high political and cultural level in Korcula at that time; though it was living as were other Dalmatian towns in the 13th century as well, in the danger due to the avaricious appetites of the powerful forces around it. The Korcula statute protected Korcula from the authoritarian reign of Venice, but at the same time offered Korcula Venetian protection from other possible aggressors as it wanted to continue its relative prosperity, especially in shipbuilding, stone-cutting and shipping. The citizen of Korcula, though under the yoke and protection of Venice could guard his rights and his lifestyle from the outside world because of the legal codex, but he wished to look beyond the borders and the limits of western metaphysics and he he began to broader his aspirations to take in the outside world, for the fulfilment of his dream regarding a better future. His sailing ships ventured in search of the unknown and, by reason of their masculine violence ploughed the Mediterranean furrows, whereas the citizen himself remained in the secure maternal womb of his city nucleus and his peasant field. Sea furrow, field furrow, and a furrow as the line of his writing, welded in the Korcula statute, spelt for the Korcula citizen the chance of a wondrous joy of existence.

Amidst the overall risks of the European insecurity, Korcula, either by force or willingly, accepts the previous duke of Dubrovnik, Marsilie Zorzi, a Venetian nobleman, as its duke in 1254. In that same year Marko Polo was born.

The Polo family is much respected in Korcula; living over centuries in the town of Korcula. It produced over the years numerous shipbuilders, smiths, stone-masons, tradesmen, priests, and public notaries. Marko's father Nikola and uncle Mate founded their trading outpost in Korcula, and the members of the Polo family were guardians of the walls around the town of Korcula. But, for the skilful tradesmen Nikola and Mate, Korcula was only the starting point of their business trade and their adventurous life. Marko's father and uncle penetrated deeply into Asia. They erected a tower and founded their own trading outpost in the town of Sudac on the Crimea. They had their main trade centre in Constantinople, to which many Korcula businessmen and shipbuilders were travelling and for some time they were living there. Mate and Nikola Polo traded successfully with the Persians. They were cognisant with the secret ways which led through Syria and Iraq as far as the coasts of Persian Gulf. They also knew the areas where the precious pearl oysters could be found. Wherever they ventured they were made welcome as people who were "noble-minded, wise and reasonable". They knew the routes that led to the fur traders of southern Siberia. They had trade contacts with the dignitaries of various Tartar peoples, and they reached the court of the Great Kublai Khan in China. They had started their journey before Marko Polo was born. The successful Korcula tradesmen feeling secure in their centuries-old native soil of Korcula, left their family and still unborn son Marko, as they gazed towards the Far East searching there for a realization of their dream of the rich life. Their ideas of fusing the cultural structures of the West and the East also decreed the destiny of Nikola's son, Marko Polo, from the day of his birth.

Marko achieved the usual education of a young nobleman of his age. He learned a lot about classical writers, he understood the text of the Bible and knew the basic theology of the Roman Catholic Church. He spoke French and Italian, especially the trade vocabulary, and was skilful in keeping business books. The Church books and songs in Croatian from Marko's time have been preserved in Korcula, and it is most probable that Marko knew the Croatian language as spoken by the inhabitants of Korcula. That knowledge was to help him very much when he traveled with his father and uncle across south Russia, then inhabited by Slavonic tribes and under Tartar reign. The European languages which Marko learned in his youth were to be the basis for the development of his polyglot talents when he came in touch, in the Far East, with Chinese; this, too, he learned successfully.

Korcula first had a bishop in 1300, which contributed a great deal to the writing and maintenance of the archives, both Church and secular, and some well-known families kept their own archives. Thus, the always rich Korcula tradition passed on by word of mouth, received also written support for the preservation of the collective communal memory, thus giving birth to capable men ready for the adventures of body and spirit in distant worlds.

The oldest written document in which the Polo family is mentioned is a deed of gift dated March 14th 1400. The then duke of Korcula, Mihajlo Musi and three Korcula judges donated to a certain Joannis a building in the town quarter on the eastern side, near the house of Bogavaz Dupolo. It is the exact location of the present "tower of Marko Polo"; from which one can see clearly all the Peljesac Channel; the route of trading vessels from Hellenic times to the present day.

A somewhat older document, from 1430, speaks about the life and work of members of the Polo family in Korcula in the 13th century, mostly featuring the centuries-old tradition of building Korcula style wooden boats, well known in the whole of the Mediterranean. That document is to be found in the private archives of the Kapor family in Korcula. In this, Mate Polo applies to the community of Korcula for a piece of land for his ship-yard, near the place where his grandfathers were building boats. That document is concrete evidence that the Polos were living in Korcula and building the boats even before Marko Polo was alive. Korcula shipyards were situated both on the eastern and western shores adjacent to the fortified medieval town. In this a way, the shipbuilders, working in the vicinity of the city walls, and living inside them, were able to defend their town in case of enemy attack. In the list mentioning ship-builders in 1594, there are 16 ship-wrights from the Polo family, and in the 1810 list, 22. From a legal case of 1778, we learn that the name of the owner of a shipyard in the eastern suburb was Marko Depolo. As the skills of ship-building, as well as the ownership of the shipyards, were passing from generation to generation, from father to son, various families were for centuries using the same plots for the needs of their workshops. It is evident from the land-registry maps of the past century, and from photos exhibited in the City Museum that Mihovil Depolo, Nikola's son, (1864-1943) was the owner of one of the bigger shipyards on the eastern side ("Borak"), and that Lovro Depolo (1853-1943) was the owner of the biggest shipyard of all on the western side of the town of Korcula ("Sv. Nikola").

The Korculans were not only outstanding ship-builders but also experienced seamen. They excelled, too, as good warriors in many sea battles; among them, members of the Depolo family. Archive material and memorials confirm that the duke of Korcula, Andrea Zane, in 1584, entrusted, among others, Jerolim, Pavle and Nikola Polo, with finding crews for the participation of the town of Korcula in one of the sea battles.

Archive material concerning Korcula reveals also the rich religious life of the Korcul people especially notable in the founding and regular activities of the brotherhoods. These offered, to the various groups belonging to specific crafts, a spiritual refuge and place of relaxation from every day hard work. Like others, the Polos lived an intensive religious life. Bishop of Vinzenza, Mihovil Priuli issued a charter on January 28 1603, for the founding of the brotherhood of St. Michael (Sveti Mihovil). Among the founders, were listed the names of Pavle, Marko, Jakov, sons of Dominik De-Polo, and Vicko and Ivan, sons of Nikola De-Polo. The name of the Franciscan procurator (representative), Marko de Polo, was inscribed on the apple of the silver carrying cross belonging to the Franciscan monastery founded on the island of Badija, near Korcula. The cross was the work of the Sibenik goldsmith, Dobrosevic, whose name was also inscribed on it. The alter painting of St. Ann in the church of All Saints, dating from the beginning of the 17th century, reveals in the text at its base that the painting was the gift of Vinzentie de Polo, presbyter Marko de Polo, and others.

If we walk through the cemetery of Korcula we can see numerous tombs of the Depolo family, dating from the founding of the cemetery to the present day. Outstanding for its beauty is the family vault of Nikola and Rosa Depolo from 1891.

The surname Polo derives from the name Pavao. It was first mentioned in its Croatian form Paulovic (Pavlovic), then in the Latin form De Paulis, Venetian Di Polo, and afterwards remained only Depolo. The earliest mentioned medieval Identification System was the first name and, beside it, the additions, which specified the particular person, differentiating it from others of the same name. The surname appeared only when one of the additions to the name became hereditary. The confirmation of this rule, and that in the case when the surname Polo derives from the name Paulus (Pavao), is found in the following example. The public notary, Jakov Giricic, drew up a will for the ship-builder Paulus (Pavao) in Korcula on February 1st 1565. His surname is not mentioned, only his first name. The original of that will is now kept in the Historical Museum in Dubrovnik. It is evident from other documents written after the said will (contracts, wills and registers) that the sons of the testator now bear the permanent surname, De Paulis. The grandson of the will-maker, Nikola, bears the surname Di Paulo, and the great grandsons, Ivan and Vicko, whom we find among the founders of the brotherhood of St. Michael, bear the surname De Polo.

A frequent use of the surname in its Croatian form of Paulovic (Pavlovic) is evident from a review of the registers between the 16th and 18th centuries. It is last time mentioned for the February 2nd 1747 when Margarita, daughter of Ivan Paulovich and Vica Foretich, was born. The form of the surname Depolo became common with the birth of Mihovil, son of Marko and Palma, on June 18th 1771. From that time it has been listed in this form only. There is an interesting case of the brothers Marko and Andrija, of whom each uses another form of the surname. The contract made in 1525, between the Korcula builder, Marko Pavlovic and the Korcula chapter house, states that Marko obliged himself to complete the building of the northern aisle of the cathedral in Korcula. However, he died during the building in 1532, and his brother, the priest Andrija, with the surname De Paulis was proclaimed the tutor of his children.

712 persons with the surname Polo-Depolo were born in the period between 1583 and 1946. Domenego di Polo, god-father at the baptism of Vinzenza Ismaelis on June 26th 1583, appears on the very first page of the first registry of births in Korcula. The most impressive survey of the expansion of the surname Polo-Depolo is the list of priors ("gastaldi") of the brotherhood of St. Roko, founded on August 16th 1575. A review of the archives of Dalmatian town-communities reveals that the members of the Polo family, later Depolo, have lived continuously in the town of Korcula for centuries.

With regard to Italian professional literature, the most frequent opinion is that the Polo family comes from Dalmatia. Such a claim is evidenced in the manuscript chronicle about Venetian history covering the history of Venice from its beginning until 1446, and also in the book Le vite dei dogi (The Lives of the Dukes), published in Venice in 1522. The same thesis is expounded in later Italian literature, as for example in Biografia universale antica e moderna from 1882 and Storia di Venezia from 1848.

Today, there are Depolos living outside Korcula - in Dubrovnik, Split, Rijeka, Zagreb, Athens, Ismir, New Zealand, USA, Chile and Argentina. All of them originate from Korcula, and have family connections with their Korcula relatives.

All the facts mentioned lead to the conclusion that Korcula is the town of the Polo family - Paulovic (Pavlovic) - De Polo - Di Polo - Depolo continuously in the period from the 13th century, and according to verbal tradition even much earlier, until the present day. At the same time Korcula is the town from which many members of this family have gone to other towns and other countries. Some of them return and some of them spend their whole lives in the new environment. If the above written documents, especially those printed in Venice, say explicitly that the family of Marko Polo comes from Dalmatia, all available historical sources confirm that Korcula is, without any doubt, the town of origin of the family called POLO - DEPOLO.

The centuries-old oral tradition - handed down by word of mouth in songs, proverbs, stories, legends - connects Marko Polo and Korcula; in the development of writing, the organization of authority, education, and culture. This cedes place gradually to written evidence in the form of archives, manuscripts, contracts, deed of gifts, registry of births, deaths and marriages, and, in the recent times, in the form of literary works. So the legend of Marko Polo expands ever further, and more and more it is taken over by visual and written media: television programmes, expert and popular periodicals, tourist reviews, and set books all over the world. Marko Polo and Korcula become an inseparable structural pair in which each pole enriches and ennobles the other.

http://www.korcula.net/mpolo/mpolo2.htm




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Manahuna

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Re: Croatian folklore and history

Post  Manahuna on 09.04.11 13:46



Zvončari

Zvončari (the bellmen) is the characteristic folk custom maintained in the region around Rijeka, Croatia.
It was added to UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2009

The custom dates to pagan antiquity, and remains typical for this region. The primary task of Zvončari is to scare away evil spirits of winter and to stir up new spring-time cycle. During the Rijeka Carnival time Zvončari march from village to village throughout the region, following the same centuries-old route, making an extraordinary amount of noise, fueled in part by the wine provided by the locals en route.

The standard Zvončar costume includes white trousers, striped shirt, and a sheepskin throw. In their hands they hold a "balta" or "bačuka" - a stylized mace, and around the waist one or more big brass bells. The costume varies from village to village; for example, Zvončari of Halubje and Grobnik (Dondolaši) wear special stylized masks representing a fantastic animal heads, while Zvončari of Zejane and Brguj wear "flower hats".

A legend tells that Zvončari scared away invading Tatars or Turks. According to the legend the shepherds put masks on their heads, belted on bells, and produced a deafening noise that scared the enemy away. From that time on, a mace became part of the standard equipment of Zvončari.

(Source:Wikipedia)




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Re: Croatian folklore and history

Post  Manahuna on 09.04.11 13:57

The Delmatoi (a celtic tribe) inhabited the core of what would become known as Dalmatia.


Here are some impressions....from my excursions




(built in 304 BC) in SPLIT CITY, Diocletian's Palace.





This is a very nice baptismal font inside the palace.....it's very early christian..Rolling Eyes



Dubrovnik



Dubrovink was founded by the Illyrians and was part of the Byzantine Empire
before it went into the wealthy pockets of the Venetians.



Korčula Island

The Island was first settled by Neolithic peoples.
The second wave of settlement was by Illyrians.










The house of Marco Polo who fought with the Venetians against the Genoese
just off the coast of Korčula, which resulted in his imprisonment and a lot of
spare time to tell of his adventures to an inmate who wrote his stories down.


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Re: Croatian folklore and history

Post  Manahuna on 09.04.11 13:59

Here are some more pictures from Korcula...


Bogomilism (Footsteps of the Cathars)






















1857





1651











circ. 1250
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Re: Croatian folklore and history

Post  Manahuna on 09.04.11 14:20







Split



Divna







The entrance of Dubrovnik



The hill fort of Dubrovnik

In a May 1991 referendum, following the collapse of Communism in Europe, the overwhelming majority of Croatian citizens voted for a ‘sovereign and independent Croatian state’ free from the Serb-dominated Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. The government of Serbia, under Slobodan Milošević, initiated a propaganda campaign, stirring ethnic-Serbs, who totalled 11-12% of the total Croatian population. It called for an ethnically pure ‘Greater Serbia’, to stretch through Bosnia Hercegovina and encompass approximately one third of Croatian territory. Anti-Croatian sentiment was encouraged and Serbian fears were incited as the wheels of propaganda set in motion. The Yugoslav National Army (JNA), transformed into Milošević's Greater Serbian Army. Having simultaneously disarmed the Republican Territorial Defence Forces whilst arming Serbian insurrectionists the previous year, a campaign of terror then ensued as JNA-supported Serb-rebels and paramilitaries commenced large-scale intensified ethnic cleansing and murder of Croatia's non-Serb population. With towns cities and villages shelled relentlessly from air land and sea and Croatia's religious and cultural symbols detonated the International Community looked on. Many justified this crime against humanity based on economics or traditional ties; supposed political or ideological grounds - others simply didn’t care. With the gross military imbalance, blatant aggression and thousands of Serb regulars, reservists and paramilitaries advancing with their inexhaustable weaponry, international outrage finally compelled the UN to act. It's solution was merely to appease Milošević and endorse arms Embargo 713 - denying the lightly armed Croats weapons vital to their defence.

A. Mac C







Dubrovnik today!



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